Produção Científica



Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Three-dimensional characterization of karstic dissolution zones, fracture networks, and lithostratigraphic interfaces using GPR cubes, core logs, and petrophysics: Implications for thief zones develop
Fractures and karstic dissolution features have been recognized to significantly affect subsurface fluid flow on a range of scales in carbonate rocks. However, due to the information gap between seismic and borehole scales, characterizing these features is a real challenge. We present a three-dimensional multidisciplinary approach to identify the main factors controlling the formation of connected rock volumes composed by permeable karstic dissolution zones. We investigate two outcrops in the Jandaíra Formation, which is an intensely fractured and karstified carbonate platform in the Potiguar Basin, Brazil. Two GPR cubes are jointly interpreted with cored boreholes, borehole images, petrophysical profiles, and thin sections. We verified that attenuated zones of GPR signal are related to secondary carbonate changes caused by fracturing and/or diagenetic alterations, leading to the development of relatively high secondary permeability. At least three types of attenuation/karstic zones might occur: fractured or broken zones affected by fracture enlargement due to dissolution, zones submitted to intense diagenetic alterations, and void spaces as a final end-member of these two processes. Fractures are preferential routes to fluid flow, thus contributing to increase dissolution processes, particularly in layers having relatively high values of primary matrix porosity and permeability. On the other hand, relevant diagenetic alterations might occur in layers that contain high concentration of stylolites. As a result of interconnecting dissolved stylolites, zones of relatively high secondary permeability can be created regardless of the primary values of matrix porosity and permeability. Geobodies of connected volumes of karstic zones often present tabular shapes and are delimited by subvertical fractures and subhorizontal lithostratigraphic interfaces. In the reservoir scale, these tabular geobodies might compose highly connected permeable volumes of altered carbonate rocks that constitute thief zones or super-K layers.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Combined Nd isotope systematics and geophysical data constrain the crustal evolution of the disrupted Alto Moxotó Terrane, Borborema Province, Brazil
The accretionary record of Precambrian orogens is often masked by systematic magmatic, metamorphic and/or structural overprints. The Neoproterozoic Borborema Province presents direct linkage to several orogenic belts along western Gondwana, but its crustal evolution is contentious resulting in a range of geological models. In the region, exotic terranes that might have been docked via thrust- and strike slip structures preserve pre-Gondwana events that provide glimpses for the evolution of orogenic systems more generally. A total of 201 Smsingle bondNd analysis of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Alto Moxotó Terrane, central Borborema Province reveals source ages in granitic, mafic and metasedimentary rocks that are mostly Paleoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic, which contrast with the adjacent terranes. The successive juvenile inputs and crustal reworking from Neoarchean (ca. 2.6 Ga) to mid-Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.1 Ga) diverge with the early to late Neoproterozoic dominant crust of the neighboring blocks. 3D geophysical modelling highlights the unique signature of the Alto Moxotó Terrane compared to these blocks, including: i) K-poor and Th-rich crust and ii) higher gravity gradients when compared with the bordering lithospheric record, both in gamma-spectrometric and gravimetric maps. Moreover, prominent magnetic anomalies in all magnetometric maps coincide with the major shear zones, including previously proposed terrane boundaries, suggesting that they might represent cryptic or unmapped suture zones. The isotopic and geophysical data are consistent with derivation of the Alto Moxotó Terrane from older crustal blocks such as the São Francisco and Congo cratons and provide a model to the understanding of the accretionary evolution of western Gondwana.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Deep crustal structure of the Sergipano Belt, NE-Brazil, revealed by integrated modeling of gravity, magnetic, and geological data
The Sergipano Belt is located in the Southern Subprovince of Borborema Province in the Northeast of Brazil. Its tectonic framework was consolidated in the Pan-African-Brasiliano Orogeny at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The most recent geological models indicate that its evolution occurred over a complete Wilson Cycle. Gravity and magnetic data profiles that crossed the Sergipano Belt from south to north were modeled jointly by the forward method to provide a 2D view of the deep crustal structure. The modeling
process was linked and supported by the use of geological data and models. The result revealed the deep structure of the crust and identified the geometry of the main geological domains to the depth of Moho discontinuity. The folds and thrusts toward the São Francisco Craton are a persistent and deep feature in the Southern crust of the Sergipano Belt. The general tectonic context of the models is compatible with the subduction and collision of the São Francisco Paleoplate under the Pernambuco-Alagoas Superterrane, sutured in the São Miguel do Aleixo Shear Zone. The presence of dense blocks at the base of the crust
was interpreted as layers of ophiolites placed by obduction. The metasediments of the Vaza Barris and
Macururé domains are tabular bodies with thicknesses lower than 5 km, which dip horizontally or at a low angle on the flanks of the shear zones. Small vertical bodies of lower density within the Macururé Domain have correlation with granitic intrusions. In the Canindé Domain there is a dense layer in the lower crust that was interpreted as the relicts of the oceanic crust that based a back-arc basin. The granitic bodies modeled north of the Canindé Domain and correlated with the Serra do Catu batholith in Pernambuco Alagoas Superterrane, may be the record of subduction of this crust to the north. The data and models revealed geophysical differences between the Jirau do Ponciano and Rio Coruripe domains, and the crust north of the Palmeira dos Índios Shear Zone. These terranes are separated by shear zones with evident expression in gravity and magnetic data. However, the existence of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary supracrustal rocks partially covering both the domains and zones and the boundary shear indicates that
the junction among these blocks occurred before the deposition of Neoproterozoic sediments.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

A review of the geophysical knowledge of the Borborema Province, NE-Brazil, and tectonic implications
This review summarizes the results of nearly 50 years of application of geophysical data to study tectonic problems in Borborema Province (BP), Northeastern Brazil. Much information has been obtained from the interpretation of magnetic, gamma-ray spectrometry, gravity, seismological, magnetotelluric, deep seismic and heat flow data. The resulting picture is that, in comparison with other Brazilian geological domains, BP has a thin crust, a lithosphere with small effective elastic thickness, the presence of predominantly positive free-air gravity anomalies, besides the most expressive geoid anomaly, in addition to relatively high heat flow and intraplate seismicity. These facts reinforce the hypothesis that the BP lithosphere suffered a strong impact in Gondwana fragmentation. Predominantly positive free-air gravity anomalies reveal that part of the province has not yet reached isostatic equilibrium. Gravity data established the boundaries of the BP crustal block with neighboring blocks; in particular, the crustal boundary with the São Francisco Craton is located in the innermost regions of the marginal fold belt, tens of kilometers at the north of the conventional limit. Magnetic data allowed to infer the continuity of basement structures beneath sedimentary basins, in particular that BP continues to the Transbrasiliano Lineament, underneath the sedimentary of the Parnaíba Basin. In addition, enhanced magnetic maps made it possible assessing the amount of deformation associated with the major shear zones and identified a continental-scale Cretaceous dike system crossing the BP. Gamma-ray spectrometry data allowed extensive geological mapping of metasedimentary sequences, granitic intrusions and basement complexes. Seismological data allowed to recognize that major shear zones in BP have lithospheric significance. Deep seismic data evidenced a well-defined contrast between the upper and lower crust in BP (Conrad discontinuity). Magnetotelluric data revealed several deep geoelectrical anomalies in BP, some of them interpreted as relics of subduction zones. Intraplate seismicity studies allowed inferring that the current stress state in the BP upper crust is predominantly transcurrent. The list of open problems in BP is also expressive. Notable examples are: a) it has not yet been possible to define which type of orogeny (accretionary or intracontinental?) was dominant in the Neoproterozoic; b) the cause of the expressive geoid anomaly is unknown; c) the tectonic significance of the Transbrasiliano Lineament (collisional suture? Just an intracontinental shear zone?) is also unknown. Regarding economic applications, the use of geophysical data to prospect new ore deposits is still relatively poor. We hope that this review can contribute to increase the familiarity and acceptance of geophysical results by the geological community.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Review of tectonic inversion of sedimentary basins in NE and N Brazil: Analysis of mechanisms, timing and effects on structures and relief
Most intraplate areas worldwide are under compression characterized by thrust and strike-slip deformations. The
sources of the stresses in these regions are a combination of far-field (regional) stresses (e.g., ridge push, slab
pull, lithospheric drag) and near-field (local) stresses (e.g., topography, lateral and vertical anisotropy of strength or elastic properties, erosion, flexural bending, overloading, buoyancy of low-density regions). These intraplate regions are sites favorable for the tectonic inversion of sedimentary basins. Here, we review the tectonic inversions of the sedimentary basins in NE and N Brazil, which comprise a significant part of the South American intraplate (the South American Platform). These regions have been under compression since the Late Cretaceous. Reports of post-rift basin inversions derived from seismic profiles, fault-slip data, and topography have been described in the Sergipe-Alagoas, Paraíba, Potiguar, Ceara, ´ Rio do Peixe, Araripe (NE Brazil), and Solimoes ˜ (N Brazil) basins. Reports of inversions in the rift phase have also been described in the Araripe Basin. The presentday stress field indicates that inversions in NE Brazil can mainly be characterized as strike-slip and thrust fault regimes, whereas in N Brazil, inversions have occurred under reverse stress regimes. The most frequent inversion structures are reactivated faults, folds, and dome structures affecting the topography and the consequent uplift of rift and post-rift sedimentary units. Inversions have led to the reactivation of continental-scale structures, such as the strike-slip dextral shearing of the Transbrasiliano lineament, which affected rift and post-rift units in the
Equatorial Margin of Brazil. The small crustal thickness of these areas favors inversion, as indicated by the most
recent Moho depth map of South America. The interplay between far-field and near-field stresses explains the
stress pattern in NE and N Brazil, where inversions have been observed.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Can Full-Waveform Inversion Compensate for the Lack of Illumination in Crosswell Tomography?
Seismic illumination can be defined as the maximum angle between rays that pass through a point. Only interfaces completely contained in the angular apertures can be correctly imaged with first arrival traveltime tomography (FATTT). We investigate if 2D acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) can compensate for the lack of illumination of a crosshole tomography experiment. We use synthetic data generated with Ricker wavelets with peak frequencies at 100 or 500 Hz, resulting in small overlapping in the frequency bandwidths, allowing the use of a multiscale FWI approach. We investigate two FWI cases: in the first case (FWI T), just the waves recorded at the opposite borehole are used whilst, in the second case (FWI T+R), the waves recorded at the two boreholes are used. For a single interface, the shape of the transmitted waveform only varies significantly when it is contained in the angular apertures. Accordingly, shot gathers for layered models with interfaces outside the angular apertures can be roughly reproduced with equivalent homogeneous media. Thus, in comparison with FATTT, both FWI cases give mild improvements for models with interfaces inside the angular coverage, and cannot compensate for the lack of illumination of the experiment. However, in the mixed condition where layers with interfaces inside the angular coverage are cut by a fault, FWI offers substantial improvements over FATTT, even if the fault plane is outside the angular coverage. In this mixed situation, resolution increases when FWI T+R is used. However, for the studied cases, no significant improvements were obtained in the FWI stage where the 500 Hz peak frequency was used.

Artigo em Revista
29/05/2023

Correlation analysis: application of DFA and DCCA in well log profiles
Detrended fluctuation analysis and detrended cross correlation analysis are used in this work to identify and characterize correlated well log data. This is performed by first separating the different fluctuations due to external trends, and evaluating the autocorrelation and cross-correlation exponents to determine whether scale properties persist as the size of the series changes. Two new methodologies were developed to identify optimal values of the cross-correlation coefficients and graphically display them, which we call the automatic search procedure and correlation map. The methodologies were applied to well logs from the Jequitinhonha Basin, Brazil, to verify the existence of scale property in these data. For practical purposes, our goal is to use a local analysis framework to detect all points of high cross-correlation among different physical parameters in the same well, and among one same physical parameter in different wells. The correlated events suggested the continuity of geological features, including the vertical displacements of rock layers. In particular, it was possible to identify layers of calcilutites in a specific depth range. These rocks are of particular importance to the study of stratigraphic correlations due to their great regional extent and regular layering.

Artigo em Revista
03/04/2023

Controls of fracturing on porosity in pre-salt carbonate reservoirs
This work aims to improve the understanding of how fracture zones affect carbonate reservoir properties based on observations of a pre-salt well located in the Santos Basin, Brazil. The identification of fracture zones allowed for the observation of a relationship between the occurrence of rock fractures and the silicification, as the latter plays an important role in determining porosity (higher silica content may increase brittleness of the rocks therefore increasing the likelihood of creating fractures zones and fractures may be filled up reducing the total porosity). To support the proposed observation, an inte-grated study was conducted using borehole imaging, spectroscopy logs, and sidewall core samples. The
porosities were defined using nuclear magnetic resonance log analysis, alongside sidewall core samples, and thin sections. The integration of rock samples and well data with seismic analysis was performed to analyze the presence of a regional fault system that could explain high fracture densities as well as observed silica content
characteristics. The results show how different types of cement filling up the formation pores affect fracture densities and total porosity. Furthermore, it was possible to infer that the amount of silica content observed in well logs and thin sections relates to hydrothermal fluids reaching out the reservoir through regional fault systems detected in the seismic section. Therefore, this paper
supports the comprehension of how diagenetic processes can significantly affect the properties of pre-salt reservoirs.

Artigo em Revista
29/03/2023

Compartmentalization and stratigraphic-structural trapping in pre-salt carbonate reservoirs of the Santos Basin: A case study in the Iara complex
The reservoir characterization of the Brazilian Santos Basin’s pre-salt carbonates is a major challenge due to the
faciological and depositional complexity, providing high lateral and vertical heterogeneities, and consequently,
the formation of static/dynamic intraformational seals. Regarding this context, there is a massive pre-salt
accumulation known as the Iara Cluster. During the early development stage, this cluster was split into three
distinct accumulations named Berbigão, Sururu, and Atapu. This study aims to characterize the geological and
hydrodynamic factors that affect the Iara Cluster reservoir compartmentalization. To achieve this objective, we
applied an integrated analysis based on 3D seismic interpretation, well logs, pressure formation and fluid
geochemistry analysis. The spatial distribution of the reservoir range’s five main seismic patterns indicates potential stratigraphic-structural barrier zones. The well log analysis correlated with formation pressure data
enabled the identification of several irregular oil-water contacts and free water levels. Small relative variations
are associated with the perched-water phenomenon, while large variations are related to compartmentalization.
The formation pressure analysis shows the hydraulic compartmentalization of the reservoirs in the Berbigao ˜
Field. Sururu and Atapu fields’ oil zones are possibly connected by a dynamic sealing zone or a common aquifer,
which provides a pressure balance on a geological time scale, since their oil gradients are similar. Our analyzes
identified stratigraphic components in reservoir trapping associated with reservoir quality lateral obliteration.
Dissimilarities in the oil sample composition and properties indicate different petroleum charge histories along with the distinct CO2 contamination timing. The Berbigao ˜ oil-associated gas formed in earlier stages of maturation than the Sururu and Atapu samples. The results integration through a risk matrix revealed areas with a
greater chance of compartmentalization and perched-water phenomenon. Our study highlights the importance of
multidisciplinary analysis to comprehend complex carbonate reservoirs connectivity, and offers input to de-risk
new ventures’ pre-salt reservoir quality.

Artigo em Revista
08/03/2023

Bibliometric analysis of surface water detection and mapping using remote sensing in South America
The detection and mapping of surface water resources for South America (DMSWSA) in Remote sensing context is a highly relevant issue from a scientific point of view due to the impact on the understanding of changes in the hydrological cycle, water availability, and climate in global terms since 45% of all water resources available on the globe are present on this continent. This study presents a new approach to evaluating the scientific literature of the last 21 years focused on DMSWSA in a Remote sensing scientific literature. Our study aims to carry out a bibliometric analysis on the application of the DMSWSA in a Remote sensing dominium to assess researchers, countries, and trends. We used the Scopus database for the literature search. Then we used bibliometric tools to access information and reveal quantification patterns of literature. Our results show that the most relevant contributions involved Brazil and Argentina. DMSWSA has only shown an expansion in recent years regarding the number of articles published and citations. It was possible to show that the DMSWSA in a Remote sensing scientific area needs further collaboration expansion between countries within South America and beyond this continental border. We reveal aspects of great importance and interest in the literature using bibliometric approaches to give a clear view of research trends for DMSWSA.

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