Produção Científica

**Artigo em Revista**

Retrieval of Body-Wave Reflections Using Ambient Noise Interferometry Using a Small-Scale ExperimentWe report the retrieval of body-wave reflections from noise records using a small-scale experiment over a mature oil field. The reflections are obtained by cross-correlation and stacking of the data. We used the stacked correlograms to create virtual source-to-receiver common shot gathers and are able to obtain body-wave reflections. Surface waves that obliterate the body-waves in our noise correlations were attenuated following a standard procedure from active source seismics. Further different strategies were employed to cross-correlate and stack the data: classical geometrical normalized cross-correlation (CCGN), phase cross-correlation (PCC), linear stacking**** and phase weighted stacking (PWS). PCC and PWS are based on the instantaneous phase coherence of analytic signals. The four approaches are independent and reveal the reflections; nevertheless, the combination of PWS and CCGN provided the best results. Our analysis is based on 2145 cross-correlations of 600 s data segments. We also compare the resulted virtual shot gathers with an active 2D seismic line near the passive experiment. It is shown that our ambient noise analysis reproduces reflections which are present in the active seismic data. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Neogeneâ€“Quaternary fault reactivation influences coastal basin sedimentation and landform in the continental margin of NE BrazilWe investigate the role of reactivation of Precambrian basement fabric in the tectono-sedimentary and geomorphological evolution of the ParaÃba Basin, continental margin of northeastern Brazil, during the Cretaceous, Neogene, and Quaternary. This basin represents part of the last bridge between South America and Africa before the last breakup stage of the South Atlantic rifting in the early Cretaceous. The ParaÃba Basin infill is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate Cretaceous units, as well as aeolian, fluvial and marine Quaternary units. We used shuttle radar imagery, aeromagnetic, wellbore and field data. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map (RTP) indicates the continuity of the steeply dipping Precambrian basement shear zones beneath the ParaÃba Basin. The combined analysis of surface and subsurface data shows that NEâ€“SW and Eâ€“W-striking shear zones were subjected to brittle reactivation in the Aptianâ€“Middle Albian during the basin opening and again in the Neogeneâ€“Quaternary, forming a system of horsts and grabens along the basin; some of these structures such as the Eâ€“W-oriented Pernambuco shear zone present modern-day seismicity. Nâ€“S- and mainly NWâ€“SE-striking transfer faults cut across Aptianâ€“Middle Albian to Neogeneâ€“Quaternary strata. These four main fault directions control main river channels and alluvial valleys up to 2 km wide. Topographic breaks up to 50 m were created by late reactivation of rift faults, which mark the boundary between horsts and grabens along the basin. In addition, structural data evidence syn-tectonic faulting with vertical offsets up to 80 m in the Cretaceous and up to 70 m in the Neogeneâ€“Quaternary. We conclude that shear zones across the study area are long-lived structures that have behaved as weakness zones. Their neotectonic brittle reactivation has controlled sediment deposition and landform development, which continued through the Neogeneâ€“Quaternary. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Reverse time migration using phase cross-correlationAdditional information regarding the continuity and resolution of selected seismic reflectors in reverse time migration (RTM) images can be beneficial for seismic interpretation. We have developed and evaluated new imaging conditions for RTM based on the phase coherence between the forward- and backward-propagated wavefields. These imaging conditions make use of the instantaneous phase and envelope of the analytical signals of the source and receiver wavefields, in addition to their real parts. Once the analytical wavefields are available, these imaging conditions can be calculated simultaneously with conventional conditions at little or no extra cost. The availability of these fields at each image point enables several alternative ways to define imaging conditions. We explore, in addition to pure phase crosscorrelation (PC), two approaches of amplitude-weighted PC. Our numerical experiments, imaging synthetic and field data sets, indicate that these new imaging conditions provide additional images that can highlight some weak reflectors by locally improving the resolution of RTM images. In our examples, this happens particularly in the deep portions of the seismic images. In addition, reflection events produced at discontinuities are enhanced as sharp signals, suggesting that the proposed imaging conditions can help to delineate stratigraphic and structural features that are harder to see in conventional images. These properties of the PC imaging conditions make them an interesting tool to provide additional information that can aid seismic interpretation in complex structural settings. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Extending the useful angle range for elastic inversion through the amplitude-versus-angle full-waveform inversion methodWe have developed the amplitude versus angle full-waveform inversion (AVA-FWI) method. This method considers the complete seismic response of the layered medium, and so it is capable of correctly handling seismic amplitudes from prestack data with a wide angle range. This capability is very important because a reliable estimate of the elastic parameters and the density requires an incidence angle that goes beyond 30Â°. Our method inputs seismic traces from prestack time-migrated gathers ordered by angle of incidence and works under the local 1D assumption. AVA-FWI is a nonlinear inversion based on forward modeling by the reflectivity method, which substantially increases its computational cost with respect to conventional AVA inversion. To address this problem, we developed an efficient routine for angle gather modeling and a new method for differential seismogram generation that greatly reduces the amount of computation involved in this task. The AVA-FWI method was applied to synthetic data and to a geophysical reservoir characterization case study using the North Viking Graben open data set. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Error analysis of the spectral element method with Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points for the acoustic wave equation in heterogeneous media.We present the error analysis of a high-order method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation in the particular case of constant compressibility and variable density. The domain discretization is based on the spectral element method with Gaussâ€“Lobattoâ€“Legendre (GLL) collocation points, whereas the time discretization is based on the explicit leapfrog scheme. As usual, GLL points are also employed in the numerical quadrature, so that the mass matrix is diagonal and the resulting algebraic scheme is explicit in time. The analysis provides an a priori estimate which depends on the time step, the element length, and the polynomial degree, generalizing several known results for the wave equation in homogeneous media. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the estimate under certain regularity assumptions and provide expected error estimates when the medium is discontinuous. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Estimation of quality factor based on peak frequency-shift method and redatuming operator: Application in real data setQuality factor estimation and correction are necessary to compensate the seismic energy dissipated during acoustic-/elastic-wave propagation in the earth. In this process, known as QQ-filtering in the realm of seismic processing, the main goal is to improve the resolution of the seismic signal, as well as to recover part of the energy dissipated by the anelastic attenuation. We have found a way to improve QQ-factor estimation from seismic reflection data. Our methodology is based on the combination of the peak-frequency-shift (PFS) method and the redatuming operator. Our innovation is in the way we correct traveltimes when the medium consists of many layers. In other words, the correction of the traveltime table used in the PFS method is performed using the redatuming operator. This operation, performed iteratively, allows a more accurate estimation of the QQ factor layer by layer. Applications to synthetic and real data (Viking Graben) reveal the feasibility of our analysis. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Limitations of correlation-based redatuming methodsRedatuming aims to correct seismic data for the consequences of an acquisition far from the target. That includes the effects of an irregular acquisition surface and of complex geological structures in the overburden such as strong lateral heterogeneities or layers with low or very high velocity. Interferometric techniques can be used to relocate sources to positions where only receivers are available and have been used to move acquisition geometries to the ocean bottom or transform data between surfaceâ€“seismic and vertical seismic profiles. Even if no receivers are available at the new datum, the acquisition system can be relocated to any datum in the subsurface to which the propagation of waves can be modeled with sufficient accuracy. By correlating the modeled wavefield with seismic surface data, one can carry the seismic acquisition geometry from the surface closer to geologic horizons of interest. Specifically, we show the derivation and approximation of the one-sided seismic interferometry equation for surface-data redatuming, conveniently using Green's theorem for the Helmholtz equation with density variation. Our numerical examples demonstrate that correlation-based single-boundary redatuming works perfectly in a homogeneous overburden. If the overburden is inhomogeneous, primary reflections from deeper interfaces are still repositioned with satisfactory accuracy. However, in this case artifacts are generated as a consequence of incorrectly redatumed overburden multiples. These artifacts get even worse if the complete wavefield is used instead of the direct wavefield. Therefore, we conclude that correlation-based interferometric redatuming of surfaceâ€“seismic data should always be applied using direct waves only, which can be approximated with sufficient quality if a smooth velocity model for the overburden is available. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Time-to-depth conversion and velocity estimation by image-wavefront propagationA new strategy for time-to-depth conversion and interval-velocity estimation is based entirely on image-wavefront propagation without the need to follow individual image rays. The procedure has three main features: (1) It computes the velocity field and the traveltime directly, allowing us to dispense with dynamic ray tracing; (2) it requires only the knowledge of the image wavefront at the previous time step; and (3) it inherently smooths the image wavefront, inhibiting the formation of caustics. As a consequence, the method tends to be faster than the usual techniques and does not carry the constraints and limitations inherent to common ray-tracing strategies. Synthetic tests using a Gaussian velocity anomaly as well as the Marmousi velocity model, and two smoothed versions of it show the feasibility of the method. A field-data example demonstrates the use of different numerical procedures. Our results indicate that the present strategy can be used to construct reasonable depth-velocity models that can be used as reliable starting models for velocity-model building in depth migration or for tomographic methods. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Optimization of the parameters in complex PadÃ© Fourier finite-difference migrationComplex PadÃ© Fourier finite-difference migration is a stable one-way wave-equation technique that allows for better treatment of evanescent modes than its real counterpart, in this way producing fewer artifacts. As for real Fourier finite-difference (FFD) migration, its parameters can be optimized to improve the imaging of steeply dipping reflectors. The dip limitation of the FFD operator depends on the variation of the velocity field. We have developed a wide-angle approximation for the one-way continuation operator by means of optimization of the PadÃ© coefficients and the most important velocity-dependent parameter. We have evaluated the achieved quality of the approximate dispersion relation in dependence on the chosen function of the ratio between the model and reference velocities under consideration of the number of terms in the PadÃ© approximation and the branch-cut rotation angle. The optimized parameters are chosen based on the migration results and the computational cost. We found that by using the optimized parameters, a one-term expansion achieves the highest dip angles. The implementations were validated on the Marmousi data set and SEG/EAGE salt model data. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Source wavelet and local wave propagation effects on the amplitude-variation-with-offset response of thin-layer models: A physical modeling study.In target layers with thicknesses below the vertical seismic resolution as thin layers, the tuning effect/interference between the wave propagation modes may increase the challenge of doing amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis because it is difficult to recover the primary PP amplitudes embedded in the data by further seismic data processing. Thus, we have investigated the importance of the primary PP reflections, locally P-SV converted waves, and internal multiple reflections in the amplitude response of two thin-layer seismic physical models. One model consists of a thin water layer embedded between two nylon plates, and another model with a thin acrylic layer surrounded by water. Numerical modeling using the reflectivity method was applied to analyze each wave propagation mode and the source waveform role in the experimental data. Before the experimental reflection data acquisition, we characterized two source and receiver piezoelectric transducer (PET) pairs: one with a circular plane face and the other with a semispherical face. We measured the source wavelet, its dominant frequency, and the PETsâ€™ directivity pattern. Semispherical PETs were chosen to acquire common midpoint reflection data. Thereafter, a processing workflow was applied to remove linear events interfering with the target reflections and to correct amplitudes due to transmission losses, source/receiver directivity, and geometric spreading effects. Finally, we investigated the thin-layer targets near incidence angle amplitude and the AVO response. The results showed that the interference between the primary PP reflections and the locally converted shear waves may considerably affect the observed amplitude response. The source wavelet bandwidth appeared as a second-order effect, and the internal multiple reflections were practically negligible. These results suggested that in real data sets, it is important to investigate the wave propagation modes and source wavelet role in the amplitudes observed, before deciding the AVO analysis/inversion workflow that should be adopted. |