Produção Científica

**Artigo em Revista**

A multiscale approach to full-waveform inversion using a sequence of time-domain misfit functionsMost of the approaches designed to avoid cycle skipping in full-waveform inversion (FWI) involve calculating a sequence of inversions in a multiscale fashion. We have adopted an alternative strategy, which is inverting a sequence of different misfit functions in the time domain. This is an implicit multiscale approach in the sense that the used misfit functions are sensitive to different wavelengths, but all of the inversion steps use the same modeling algorithm and the same model grid. In the first and third inversion steps, the transmitted (early arrivals) and reflected (late arrivals) components of the wavefield envelopes are respectively fitted. The second step promotes a smooth transition between the first and third steps, by using the envelope of the complete waveform. Because fitting just the envelope of the reflected waves has a minor effect on the misfit function of the whole data set, the phases of the reflected waves are mostly fitted in the fourth step, which is based on the waveform misfit function preserving only the late arrivals. The third and fourth steps are of crucial importance to fit the reflected events. We test the sequential inversion approach with the Marmousi model using data sets with different frequencies, obtaining better estimates of the velocity field than those obtained with the classic FWI. The solutions obtained with classic FWI and sequential inversion approach degrade with a progressively higher peak frequency data set, but the classic FWI solution degrades more rapidly. |

**Artigo em Revista**

3D Seismic survey design using mixed-radix based algorithm inversionThe determination of three-dimensional geometry and acquisition parameters, the seismic acquisition survey design, is constantly subject of studies in obtaining data with the highest seismic quality, operational efficiency and cost minimization. In this paper, we propose a methodology for inverting geometry parameters of threedimensional orthogonal land seismic surveys based on a direct search method using a mixed-radix based algorithm. In this algorithm, the search space is discretized on a mixed-radix base, which depends on the extreme values and the search resolution of each parameter. We will show how to reparametrize the orthogonal acquisition geometry elements in order to obtain the independents and integers parameters that are necessary to construct the mixed-radix base. For the optimization purpose, we define an objective function to contemplate target parameters associated with the elements of the acquisition geometry directly related to the geophysical and operationa constraints. Taking in account that the mathematical functions and the objective function we define for the problem have no significant computational cost, all model space parameters are fast and efficiently tested. We applied the algorithm, using as input data, provided by a one-line roll orthogonal reference geometry, assuming a pair of geological objectives as shallow and deep targets. All selected models that meet both the proposed objectives and the constraints are organized by decreasing order of fitness so that with the mixed-radix inversion algorithm we found not only the best model, but also a set of suitable models. Likewise, with the best set of geometries, it is possible to establish a direct comparison between them, analysing their adherence to the technical and operational requirements according to the availability and degree of detail of each one. We show the top 10 best results as a table, allowing a direct comparison between all aspects of these geometries, and we summarize the results showing graphically the fitness of all selected geometries and the inverted geometry elements for the 1000 best geometries. These graphical displays provide a direct way to understand how each model behaves as the fitness decreases. The algorithm is very flexible and its application can be extended to any environment and type of acquisition geometry, and in any phase study of an area be it regional, exploratory or development. Key words: 3D seismic survey design, Geophysical inversion, Mixed-radix representation, Optimization. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Colored and linear inversions to relative acoustic impedanceAcoustic impedance (AI) is a widely used seismic attribute in stratigraphic interpretation. Because of the frequency-band-limited nature of seismic data, seismic amplitude inversion cannot determine AI itself, but it can only provide an estimate of its variations, the relative AI (RAI). We have revisited and compared two alternative methods to transform stacked seismic data into RAI. One is colored inversion (CI), which requires well-log information, and the other is linear inversion (LI), which requires knowledge of the seismic source wavelet. We start by formulating the two approaches in a theoretically comparable manner. This allows us to conclude that both procedures are theoretically equivalent. We proceed to check whether the use of the CI results as the initial solution for LI can improve the RAI estimation. In our experiments, combining CI and LI cannot provide superior RAI results to those produced by each approach applied individually. Then, we analyze the LI performance with two distinct solvers for the associated linear system. Moreover, we investigate the sensitivity of both methods regarding the frequency content present in synthetic data. The numerical tests using the Marmousi2 model demonstrate that the CI and LI techniques can provide an RAI estimate of similar accuracy. A field-data example confirms the analysis using synthetic-data experiments. Our investigations confirm the theoretical and practical similarities of CI and LI regardless of the numerical strategy used in LI. An important result of our tests is that an increase in the low-frequency gap in the data leads to slightly deteriorated CI quality. In this case, LI required more iterations for the conjugate-gradient least-squares solver, but the final results were not much affected. Both methodologies provided interesting RAI profiles compared with well-log data, at low computational cost and with a simple parameterization. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Automatic seismic velocity analysis based on nonlinear optimization of the semblance functionWe developed and analyzed a method for automatic velocity picking in the semblance domain as a nonlinear optimization problem that is computationally fast, robust, and a simple model for testing. The obtained results can be considered as an initial model for other data-driven methods. Seismic velocity analysis can be considered the major aim for application in data imaging and post-imaging processes. It falls into several classes ofmathematical and computational problems, such as manual or automatic, stack ormigration, and nonlinear local or global optimization. In all cases the process needs assistance in terms of a priori information and input-output constraints, that can be geological (fromwell logs), geometrical, and physical parameters. In addition, all geophysics problems are to be considered three dimensional spatially, as twodimensional imaging suffers from structural side effects. In the conventionalmethod, the steps of velocity analysis for each common-mid-point are as follows: (1) normalmoveout stack velocities are estimated by means of semblance summation along hyperbolic time trajectories producing a map of S(vrms, t0); (2) manual picking is performed in the semblance map for several stack times t0; and (3) interval velocities, vint, are calculated based on the picked smooth stack velocities, vrms, to construct an earth velocity time model that does not require a reference subsurface model. In conclusion, the present automatic velocity analysis hasmultiple tasks: (1) diminishing the picking step by considering that the stack velocities are based on an interval velocity model; (2) searching for an interval velocity model that best explains the estimated stack velocities; and (3) automatically searching, subject to geological, physical and mathematical constraints, and editing. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Constraint nip-tomographic inversion of strong sparse seismic dataThis work is a result of specific numerical experimentsmotivated by real cases of processing strong sparse seismic data, as an application of techniques based on the common-reflection-surface (CRS) stack technology aiming at estimating a smooth velocity depth distribution. The paper is primarily limited to numerical tests with a depth velocity model that attends closely the paraxial theory validated by the seismic ray hypotheses. A complete modeling of a seismic surveywas performed, and the common-shot sections were submitted to random muting of traces, to noise addition, and afterwards followed by reconstruction of the section by trace interpolation. The interpolation was controlled by the 2D spectral non-aliasing condition, where the t âˆ’ x spectral amplitude content was limited to the two main Fourier quadrants f âˆ’ k. It was admitted that most information was based on primary compressional (P) wave content; therefore, multiples and the P âˆ’ S conversion were considered as noise. The trace interpolation used the stack attributes of the original gather (conventional stack) with sparse data to construct supergather sections (for the supergather stack). The velocity distribution in depth uses the principle of interpreting the inversion data as normal incidence point (NPI) information. The applied inversion algorithm is NIP-tomographic, classified as curve fitting, non-linear, multi-parametric, that uses the wave front kinematic and dynamic CRS attributes as data-driven constraints to estimate a consistent depth velocity distribution. As a general conclusion, we emphasized also interpolation, inclusive of sparse data, as a step for spectral analysis, consequently in filtering, stacking, and tomography to obtain a velocity distribution for further use in the estimation for velocity distribution, imaging, geological interpretation and sedimentary basin modeling. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Target-level waveform inversion: a prospective application of the convolution-type representation for the acoustic wavefieldNowadays, full-waveform inversion, based on fitting the measured surface data with modelled data, has become the preferred approach to recover detailed physical parameters from the subsurface. However, its application is computationally expensive for large inversion domains. Furthermore, when the subsurface has a complex geological setting, the inversion process requires an appropriate pre-conditioning scheme to retrieve the medium parameters for the desired target area in a reliable manner. One way of dealing with both aspects is by waveform inversion schemes in a target-oriented fashion. Therefore, we propose a prospective application of the convolution-type representation for the acoustic wavefield in the frequencyâ€“space domain formulated as a target-oriented waveform inversion method. Our approach aims at matching the observed and modelled upgoing wavefields at a target depth level in the subsurface, where the seismic wavefields, generated by sources distributed above this level, are available. The forward modelling is performed by combining the convolution-type representation for the acoustic wavefield with solving the two-way acoustic wave-equation in the frequencyâ€“space domain for the target area. We evaluate the effectiveness of our inversion method by comparing it with the full-domain full-waveform inversion process through some numerical examples using synthetic data from a horizontal well acquisition geometry, where the sources are located at the surface and the receivers are located along a horizontal well at the target level. Our proposed inversion method requires less computational effort and, for this particular acquisition, it has proven to provide more accurate estimates of the target zone below a complex overburden compared to both full-domain full-waveform inversion process and local full-waveform inversion after applying interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution to get local-impulse responses. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Multi-frequency electromagnetic method for inductive measurement of ground induced polarization and resistivityA geophysical electromagnetic method to inductively measure the ground electrical resistivity and induced polarization has recently been tested. Its basic characteristics involve three major differences from other methods: the two electrical ground parameters are obtained through measuring magnetic field. For this purpose, a transmitterâ€“receiver (T, R) electromagnetic system is used that operates in the frequency domain and consists of a horizontal loop as the transmitter for the perpendicular loops configuration on the ground surface; the measured function is the (T, R) inductive coupling main variation produced due to the presence of the earth, that is the magnetic field radial component; the measurements are conducted at a large number of frequencies (139 in the more advanced prototype), and the measured function is explored in the frequency interval 0.2 Hz to 1 kHz, a much broader frequency range of the induced polarization effect spectrum, than the one conventionally used in field exploration. Three major aspects are emphasized: (1) the existence of a small â€˜main zoneâ€™ interior to a half-space, which is responsible for most of the magnetic energy that the receiver measures on the half-space surface. This permits to substitute the entire half-space by the â€˜main zoneâ€™ and, in a second step, to substitute the â€˜main zoneâ€™ by an equiv- alent homogeneous half-space with the electrical characteristics of such â€˜main zone';(2) the existence of a closed solution for the fields that the (T, R) system generates on the surface of a homogeneous isotropic half-space, which provides exact functions with the two electrical parameters of interest as the variables (the apparent resistivity and relative polarization parameter); (3) the values of the electrical parameters so determined can be attributed to the central point of the â€˜main zoneâ€™. Three-horizontal layers half-space and a conductive sphere in the free-space are discussed as models. Four field surveys are analysed as examples and show a satisfactory performance of the method for detection of on-shore hydrocarbon reservoirs, description of induced reservoir variations and structural features mapping at depths up to 2.5 km. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Effects of torque produced by wake on the maneuverability of a flatfish autonomous underwater vehicleAutonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) are important resources to be used in the oil exploration industry in deep waters as well as a platform for scanning devices used in open sea regions of difficult human access. This work aims to analyze through computer simulations the influence of marine currents on the maneuverability of a flatfish shaped AUV. The 3D realistic scale simulations were performed on the Yemoja supercomputer located at SENAI-CIMATEC and describe the temporal evolution of the torques in the three rotational degrees of freedom - roll,yaw and pitch. The torques were calculated for two different inlet velocities and three angles (yaw) of attack showing a significant gain in the amplitude of these with increasing velocity and pitch being the component with the greatest amplitude of oscillation. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Cross-correlation in a turbulent flow: Analysis of the velocity field using the pDCCA coefficientThe stochastic process of a turbulent flow in a pipeline provides a time series of the velocity field at any point of the domain by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation. The turbulent flow was produced by obstacles near the inlet, injecting eddies into the current. Moving downstream, these eddies evolve to a fully turbulent flow. Many length and time scales are involved in this process. We explore the cross-correlations of the velocity field time series at different points and also at different time scales using the detrended cross-correlation coefficient, pDCCA, designed to analyze the cross-correlations in non-stationary time series. Thus, the results with DCCA allow interpreting how these eddies propagate downstream, and also quantify how adherent the velocity fields are with respect to the pipeline position. |

**Artigo em Revista**

Detection of the persistency of the blockages symmetry influence on the multi-scale cross-correlations of the velocity fields in internal turbulent flows in pipelinesIn this paper we analyze the influence of obstacles symmetry on the development of the turbulent flow of a fluid through a pipeline. The analysis is based on the numerical solutions of the Navierâ€“Stokes equations for the velocity field. The influence of the obstacle symmetry on the turbulence is detected by changing their shape while keeping the blockage ratio constant and calculating velocity field cross-correlations on the time series resulting from the simulation. The Detrended Cross-Correlation coefficient (ÏDCCA) is applied to obtain two-point correlations located at different regions of the channel: at mid-channel and near the walls (above and below). With this cross-correlation coefficient we quantify how far from the obstructions these coefficients become independent on the obstructions shape, establishing a scale for the obstruction symmetry memory loss. |

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